Pond Dynamics

Our Aquaculture ponds are living ecosystems that react to their constantly changing environment. The pond undergoes a range of both chemical reactions and physical changes. Exchange of atmospheric gases including Oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2) and Carbon dioxide (CO2) with the pond water are vital to the process of prawn/fish metabolism and plant photosynthesis. Inorganic substances (minerals) dissolve from the pond walls and bottom while precipitation of dissolved minerals occurs. Physicals exchanges between the pond and its surroundings include absorption of sunlight (radiant energy) to fuel photosynthesis and supply oxygen within the pond, heat exchange and volume changes caused by evaporation and rainfall.
Changes in the volume of a pond are crucial as they affect the concentration of dissolved substances and calls for suitable (corrective) action. Hence, the pond dynamics not only depend on its own characters and conditions but also on the surrounding atmospheric weather conditions. Pond equilibrium is the optimum set of conditions for aquaculture, a state completely in harmony with nature; which is considered ideal for a profitable aquaculture operation.

Water Quality

Intensive aquaculture is an absolute function of the quality of water. Any species even with the strongest of SPR or SPR genes seedlings would not essentially equate to a high quality harvest and/or high survival rate unless the water quality is monitored and maintained constantly. Poor water chemistry leads to deteriorate water quality, which causes stress to the organisms. Efficient feed conversion, growth and marketability of the final product cannot occur unless the pond system is balanced or in harmony with natureFactors that impact the water quality range right from the source of water, water parameters, algal blooms, seepage to deposition of undesirable substances. It is of supreme importance for the aquaculture farmers to completely understand the water quality management and continually ensure that the quality of water is maintained at its best with all the parameters falling in the ideal range.

A guiding principle of aquaculture is the water quality and hence efficient production is a direct corollary of good water chemistry. By realizing the overriding significance of water chemistry, it is important to have a firm grasp of some basic concepts; like:

The cold blooded aquatic organisms cannot modify their body temperature drastically in order to adjust to the external habitat. The optimum temperature for Vannamei ponds should be maintained within a range of 27o C TO 32oC. Higher temperatures and thermal stratification affect the pond chemistry in many ways including drop in D.O., danger of pathogenic outbreaks, fluctuations in pH etc.

Salinity plays vital importance in the growth and survival of cultured aquatic animals, since the body osmo-regulates the minerals through the interaction with the surrounding pond water medium. The optimum salinity for Vannamei shall be 10 ppt o 25 ppt.

D.O. is the single most crucial water parameter that needs the most attention in cultured shrimp farming. D.O. is affected my several other factors and fluctuations in D.O. tend to alter other water parameters and hence the overall quality of water. Oxygen affects the solubility and availability of many nutrients, low levels of dissolved oxygen can cause changes in oxidation state of substances from the oxidized to the reduced form. Lack of dissolved oxygen can be directly harmful to culture organisms or cause a substantial increase in the level of toxic metabolites. Therefore it is of utmost importance to maintain the pond D.O. levels at higher than 3 ppm at all times.
The biochemical oxygen demand (B.O.D.) affects the oxygen cycle and hence oxygen of the pond. Decaying organic matter devour sizeable amounts of oxygen in the decomposition process. It is important to comprehend that the oxygen cycle and hence dissolved oxygen levels can be affected by alterations in the surroundings; for example: a cloudy day will reduce the photosynthetic oxygen contribution to dissolved oxygen. Similarly, abnormally high temperatures will lower the solubility of oxygen in water and hence low dissolved oxygen. It is very important that the low dissolved oxygen values in the aquaculture ponds be improved rapidly by combination of aeration and water exchange if needed.

pH or the concentrations of hydrogen ions (H+) present in pond water is a measure of acidity or alkalinity. pH 7 is a condition of neutrality and routine aquaculture occurs in the range 7.0 to 9.0 (optimum is 7.5 to 8.5). Exceedingly alkaline water (greater than pH 9) is dangerous as ammonia toxicity increases swiftly. At higher temperatures aquatic animals are more vulnerable to pH changes.
pH is important since it affects the metabolism and other physiological processes of culture organisms. pH changes in pond water are mainly influenced by carbon dioxide and ions in equilibrium with it. pH can also fluctuate by a) Organic acids, these are produced by anaerobic bacteria (“acid formers”) from protein, carbohydrates and fat from feed wastes, b) Mineral acids such as: as sulfuric acid (acid-sulfate soils), which may be washed down from dikes during rains and c) Lime application. Control of pH is essential for minimizing ammonia and H2S toxicity. Drastic fluctuation of pH would cause stress to culture organisms.

The second most important gas in aquaculture is Ammonia. High ammonia levels can reach due to overfeeding: protein rich excess feed decays to liberate toxic ammonia gas, which together with the excreted ammonia may accumulate to severely high levels. In order to keep the ammonia levels under check the conversion to nontoxic nitrate (No3-) ion by nitrifying bacteria is highly essential and additionally, ammonia is converted from toxic ammonia (NH3) to nontoxic ammonium ion (NH4+). Unionized ammonia levels for Vannamei culture should remain between 0.05 to 0.09 ppm.

Several inorganic mineral substances are dissolved in water. Among these, the metals calcium and magnesium, along with their counter ion carbonate (CO3-2) comprise the basis for the measurement of ‘hardness’. Optimum hardness for aquaculture is in the range of 40 to 400 ppm of hardness. Hard waters have the capability of buffering the effects of heavy metals such as copper or zinc which are in general toxic to aquatic life. The hardness is also a vital factor in maintaining good pond equilibrium.

Water turbidity refers to the quantity of suspended material, which interferes with light penetration in the water column. Planktonic organisms or suspended clay particles are the main cause of turbidity in aquaculture ponds. Turbidity confines light penetration, thereby limiting photosynthesis in the bottom layer. Temperature and DO stratification is caused due to higher turbidity.
Planktonic organisms are desirable when not excessive, but suspended clay particles are undesirable. It can cause clogging of gills or direct injury to tissues of prawns. Erosion or the water itself can be the source of small (1-100 nm) colloidal particles responsible for the unwanted turbidity. Turbidity is monitored by immersing the Sechhi disk into the pond and the desirable visibility is 20 cm.

Aquaculture Products

Jal Raksha - S

- Composition of healthy microbes that counter :
a) Sludge
b) Bound nutrients like Phosphorous
b) Obnoxious gases
- Quickens degradation of bottom pollutants like: dead animals, fecal matter and wasted feed
- Eliminates toxic gases like Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulphide
- Improves quality of soil and pond bottom, boosting prawn health, size, survival and immunity.

Contains: Azatobacter, B. Nitrobacter, B. Nitrosomonas, B. Megaterium, De Sulfo Vibrio desulfuricans, Thiobacilus novellus, Rhodococcus+ Rhodobacter Thiobacilus thioxidans

Dosage: 2.5 litres / acre every 15 days
Application: Mix with soil and broadcast evenly
Presentation: 1Ltr/ 5 Ltr/ 20 Ltr

Jal Raksha - Water

- Enhances microbial environment in the pond
- Eliminates harmful pathogens and water borne diseases
- Increases quantity and bio-efficacy of healthy micro-organisms
- Controls pond bottom pollution
- Helpful in stabilising Salinity, pH, TDS and TSS
- Helpful degrading Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulphide
- Allows zero water exchange farming

Contains: B. subtilis, B. megaterium, A. xylinum, T. thiooxidon, Nitrobacte, Nitrosomonas, B lechiniformis, Rhodococcus, Rhodobacter, Enzymes & Organic acids

Dosage: Initial 2 kg / acre; Repeat 500g / acre -15 days
Application: Mix with suitable amount of soil and broadcast evenly Apply between 8:00 am and 11:00 am on sunny days; with aerators running
Presentation: 500g/ 1kg/ 5kg/ 20kg

Jal Raksha-Pro G

- Enhances microbial environment in the digestive tract
- Establishes healthy gastro-intestinal micro-flora
- Relieves digestive tract problems
- Improves FCR thereby Increasing overall performance, higher growth rate and immunity
- Limits activity of harmful pathogenic bacteria (e.g,: E.coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter etc.)
- Reduces Ammonia concentration and aflatoxin content

Suggested Dosage: 2-5 ml / kg feed once in 7 days (all meals)
Application: Mix evenly with the feed using a binder gel
Presentation: 100 ml/ 500 ml/ 1 Litre


- Transit feed which relieves the seed from stress
- Imparts nutritional reserve and immunity to the seedlings during the commencement of culture
- Introduces healthy micro-flora inside the prawn gut
- Improves survival rate and counters viral and pathogenic activity

Dosage: 10 ml / 1000 seedlings, added while packing at the hatchery
Presentation: 100 ml/ 500 ml / 1 Litre


- Promotes and regulates growth of zooplanktons and phytoplanktons
- Enahances survival and weight gain of cultured prawns
- Presence of live algae provides natural feeding substance for the prawns
- Increases diatoms, chlorophytes and cyanophytes

Contents: Chelated Molydenum, Denitrifying Bacteria, Enzyme Cocktail, Fertile Soil extract, Humic and Fulvic Substances, Inactivated Yeast, Manganese Mobilizing Bacteria, Nitrifying Bacteria, Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria, Organic Carbon, Phosphorous, Solubilizing Bacteria, Potash Mobilizing Bacteria, Protein Hydrolysate, Sea weed, Extract, Selenium Yeast, Silica Mobilizing Bacteria, STPP, Zinc Mobilizing Bacteria. Along with Live broth of Spirulina, Chlorella, Azolla, Anaebena.

Dosage: 2 to 4 kg / Acre once in 15 days
Application: 1 Litre/ 5 Litre/ 20 Litre
Presentation: 500g/ 1kg/ 5kg/ 20kg


- Herbal and probiotic formulation to facilitate moulting
- Formulated to achieve moulting within 48 hours of application
- Prevents the growth of an abnormal exoskeleton
- Reduce mortality and crop time
- Improves nerve functions & maintains healthy blood sugar
- Possesses cholesterol reducing properties

Dosage: - In Prawn Culture: In feed @ 5g / Kg Feed with a suitable gel four days prior to moulting
Provide the animal with suitable gut probiotic during moulting days.

- In Hatchery: @ 5 gms/ Kg egg custard after cooling to be mixed during sieving or directly to the suspension after
frothing @ 5 gms/ kg particulated feed in the case of post larval tanks. Provide the animal with suitable gut Probiotics

Presentation: 100ml/ 500ml/ 1 Litre


- Botanical hepato-stimulant, hepato-generator and hepato-protector
- Combination of herbs and probiotics that revive liver functioning
- Naturally regenerate liver cells
- Combats salmonellosis, colibacillosis, pasteurellosis, hepatitis, gumbaro
- Increases hatchability, FCR and inhibits LDL accumulation
- Reduces Triglycerides

Dosage: 2 ml per kg feed in one meal every day During stress 5 ml per kg feed in one meal every day for 7 to 10 days
Presentation: 100 ml/ 500 ml/ 1 Litre


- Provides all essential minerals in ionic form
- Helpful in exoskeleton formation and timely moulting
- Counters mineral imbalance in the pond
- Regulates osmosis, nerve impulse and muscular control
- Increases defence mechanism and disease resistance capacity
- Improves FCR, growth rate and survival

Contains:Ionized Calcium, Magnesium, Manganese, Zinc, Phosphorus, Silicon, Molybdenum and Iron; embedded on amino acids with PUFA

Dosage: 5 Litre / Acre every week

Presentation: 100 ml/ 500 ml/ 1 Litre


- New generation body weight gainer and growth stimulant
- Embedded with PUFA and essential dietary enzymes
- Works effectively under stress conditions and pathogenic outbreaks
- Improves FCR, immunity, growth rate and survival of the prawn
- Enhances digestive functions, nutrient absorption and gut micro flora
- Elevates the nutritive value of feed by suppressing the anti-nutritional factors in feed

Dosage: In pre-starter, starter and grower feeds only @ 2ml/kg feed (regularly)
Presentation: 100 ml/ 500 ml/ 1 Litre


- Eco friendly, non toxic pond sanitizer and biocide
- Eliminates all pathogenic yeasts, moulds, fungi amoeba, bacteria and virus
- Contains ionized silver encapsulated with a bio-polymer which prevents oxidation
- Deactivate the metabolic system of the pathogenic cells
- Has an oligo-dynamic, stable and long lasting effect
- Completely bio-degradable and bio safe
- Does not alter the pH or dissolved oxygen
- Works in a wide range of water temperature (0 o c to 90 o c)
- Non corrosive, non inflammable and non irritant
- Completely residue free formulation

Dosage: 1 Litre / Acre during pond preparation; Dilute 1 Litre in 100 litre’s of water and spray evenly before stocking
Presentation: 1 Litre/ 5 Litre/ 20 Litre


- Herbal composition that acts on snails and slugs
- Has bactericidal, fungicidal and anti-inflammatory properties
- Does not alter parameters like pH, D.O., salinity, turbidity etc

Contents: : Thymol, Proactive C (Proprietary) (phyto-origin), Organic Acids, Amino-acids, Bio Polymer, Emulsifiers and stabilizers

Dosage: 2 litres per acre during snail infestation (repeat weekly if needed)

Presentation: 1 Litre/ 5 Litre


- Traps all perilous gases; released by decomposing organic matter
- Active Carbon and Hydrated Sodium Aluminium Silicate, remove toxic gases by neutralising and binding them
- Acts as a pond deodorant
- Softens the pond water by improving CEC
- Healthy micro-flora converts Ammonia to Nitrates and solubilizes Phosphorus
- Removes nitrites by converting into nitrates
- Also acts as an Oxygen liberator

Dosage: 500g per acre every 15 days

Presentation: 500g/ 1kg


- Effectively controls turbidity in culture ponds
- Eco friendly, non toxic pond floculant & softner
- Acts on all TDS & TSS in the pond water
-Maintains water hardness levels wel within desirable range
- Completely resudue free formulation

Dosage: 1 kg/ Acre during turbid conditions
Presentation: 1 kg/ 5kgs


- Bio safe and environment friendly acidifier that balances the pond water ph
- Contains acetic, lactic and citric acid producing microbes and phosphorus solubilising microbes
- pH Pro is tolerant to variations such as light intensity, turbidity, hardness, salinity, light intensity and presence of obnoxious gases
- Improves healthy micro flora thus increasing growth rate and survival
- Works under severe pH conditions
- Does not decrease D.O, salinity

Dosage: 500g to 1 kg per acre every 21 days

Presentation: 500g / 1kg


- Biodegradable and non toxic broad spectrum disinfectant which kills all viral pathogens
- Also acts as a fungicide and bactericide
- Instant action after application
- Compatible with all feeds
- Resq-VX contains Pottasium peroxymonosulfate, sodium chloride, sodium polyphosphate 68+15-31- 1 and citric acid

Dosage: 1 kg per Acre while filling the pond before stocking
Presentation: 1kg / 5kg


- New generation formulation to control algal blooms in aquaculture ponds
- Works in thermal stratification conditions
- Acts by decomposition of organic and fecal wastes
- Clarifies pond water by digesting unwanted algal growth
- Removes ammonia, contaminants and organic odours
- Enhances uptake of nutrients by grasses
- Improves the water quality hence the environment for aquatic animals
- Completely bio safe and bio degradable
- Does not interfere with other probiotics or pond additives

Dosage: 500 ml to 1 litre per acre every 15 days

Presentation: 1 Litre / 5 Litre


- Biological treatment to control Vibrio and luminescent bacteria
- Essential microbes repalce disease causing bacteria with growth promoting microbes
- Works under stress conditions
- Reduces mortality due to Vibrio infection & imparts immunity
- Reduces stress caused due to infection
- Enhances FCR, growth rate, survival

Dosage: In Feed Preventive: 1g / 5 kg Feed once in 15-21 days

Curative: 1g/1 kg feed

In Pond water and drain Preventive: 500g / Acre once in 21 days Curative: 1 kg / Acre

Presentation: 1 kg/ 5 kg


- Microbial and herbal derivation; acts in preventing the WSSV
- Completely bio safe and compatible with probiotics
- Preventive dosage controld spread to nearby ponds in case of infestation
- Reduces stress and mortality
- Imparts immunity & improves growth rate along with recovery

Dosage: Curative: 2 to 5 ml per kg feed for 5 days Preventive: 500g per acre in pond water Presentation: 1litre/ 5 litre


- Composition of microbial strains to counter White gut / white muscle disease
- Promotes healthy microbial strains to combat pathogenic vibrio species like vibrio harveyi
- Imparts immunity, relieves stress and enhances prawn growth rate
- Does not deteriorate and pond water parameters
- Completely residue free probiotic formulation
- Bio safe formulation compatible with probiotics and pond additives

In Feed: Preventive: 1g/ 10 kg Feed once in 15 days;
Curative: 1g/2 kg feed one day In Pond water: Preventive: 50g/ Acre once in 15 Days;
Curative: 200g/ Acre
Presentation: 100 ml/ 500 ml/ 1 Litre


- Probiotic curative for Black gill disease
- Formulated with organic acids, herbal extracts and heavy metal binders
- Completely biodegradable and environmental friendly
- Promotes growth and relieves stress

In Feed: 2 to 5 g / kg feed
In Pond water: 100 g / Acre
Presentation: 100 ml/ 500 ml/ 1 Litre


- Acts against Protozoa known as Gregarins that cuase White fecal syndrome
- Formulated with extracts of Alpinia galangal Linn, Enterococcus fecalis, Bacillus polymyxa and ascorbic acid
- Imparts immunity and promotes growth rate
- Regulates FCR and relieves stress
- Biodegradable and eco-safe formulation

Curative: 10 to 20 g/ kg feed for 10 days
Preventive: 5 to 10 g/ kg feed once in 10 days
Presentation: 100ml/ 500ml/ 1 Litre


- Contains probiotc strains that counter Running Mortality in L. Vannamei
- Checks the activity of undesirable pathogenic microbes
- Regulates the function of Hepatopancreas
- Imparts a healthy microbial environment
- Relieves stress and imparts immunity during RMS infection
- Supplements feed with growth stimulant enzymes
- Normalizes FCR, promotes growth and survival rate
- Completely bio-degradable and eco friendly

Dosage: In Feed: Preventive: 1-2 g/ kg Feed once in 15 days; Curative: 1-2 g/ kg feed one day In Pond water: Preventive: 50g/ Acre once in 15 Days; Curative: 200g/ Acre Presentation: 500 gm/ 1 Kg


- Contains probiotc strains that have an inhibitory effect on Vibrio harveyi and V. alginolyticus
- Contains Chitin, feed attractants, Vitamin D3, Sodium Phosphate, Magnesium, Manganese, Cobalt, Choline and Zinc
- Prevents cannibalism during Loose shell syndrome
- Increases growth rate and survival
- Ensures regular moulting
- Reduces peelings at harvest

Dosage: In Feed: 2-5 g/ Kg feed for three days on Astami, Navami and Dasami Days In Pond Water: 250 g/ Acre once in 15 days on on Astami days Presentation: 100ml/ 500ml/ 1 Litre